Contemporaries immediately recognized the general's ''Commentaries on the Gallic War'' as a masterpiece, and Goldsworthy compares their style to Churchill's, even if ''the modern reader may sometimes balk'' at its ''catalog of unabashed imperialism, massacre, mass execution and enslavement'' in a province that included most of modern France.

Goldsworthy, an independent military historian with several books on the Roman army to his credit, puts Caesar's war exploits on full display, along with his literary genius.

As victor in his own civil wars, Augustus maintained an ostentatious facade of Republican government, while keeping real power in his own grasp. Shakespeare, George Bernard Shaw, Robert Graves and many others have mined this era for its epic incident and human pathos.

A new civil war will break out under far worse conditions than the last.'' History bore out Caesar's prophecy, largely through the wiles of his grand-nephew and adopted son, the ruthlessly ambitious youth who was to become Caesar Augustus. 14, after more than 40 years of rule, Augustus had come near outliving the Republic's very memory, and by destroying, co-opting or intimidating the city's old governing elite into submission, he delivered Rome into the hands of the emperors.

A., and the City of Miami, a Municipal Corporation, Appellees. We leave for another day the question whether by enacting the Florida Evidence Code, Section 90.502, Florida Statutes (1981) (effective date July 1, 1979), declaring that communications between lawyer and client are confidential, the Legislature has effectively amended the earlier enacted but subsequently reenacted law allowing the inspection and examination of public records, Public Records Act, Sections 119.01-12, Florida Statutes (1981) (effective date July 1, 1975), and exempted therefrom records reflecting lawyer-client communications as "public records which are presently provided by law to be confidential," § 119.07(3)(a), Fla. (1981), since on the record before us we need only decide whether the original petition for writ of mandamus filed by Donner and Morburger, which alleged in pertinent part that the respondents, an assistant city attorney of the City of Miami and a private attorney employed by the City to represent it in connection with certain pending litigation brought by Donner against the City, were custodians of public records (that is, files and papers relating to such litigation), and refused to produce such records for inspection and examination, stated a claim for mandamus relief under the Public Records Act or, as the trial court held, was subject to dismissal. We cannot, as the respondents suggest we do, read the trial court's unelucidating bare bones order of dismissal, which recites only that the relators have not made out a prima facie case, as a ruling that the records sought were exempt from disclosure, since in our view (1) any claim of exemption, or non-disclosure, is in the nature of an affirmative defense which must be raised in response to the issuance of an order to show cause why the relief sought should not be granted; (2) in any event, exemption could only be determined by reference to specific records, § 119.07(2)(a), Fla. (1981), none of which were before the trial court; and finally, a ruling on an exemption would necessarily be a ruling on the merits, not a dismissal for failure to make out a prima facie case. The respondents also ask us to read the dismissal as a ruling that the relators, because involved — Donner as a party, Morburger as her counsel — in litigation with the City of Miami in which these records are sought through the rules pertaining to discovery, are disqualified from asserting rights as members of the public under Chapter 119.

Cast: Djimon Hounsou, Matthew Mc Conaughey, Anthony Hopkins, Pete Postlethwaite, Morgan Freeman, Stellan Skarsgård, David Paymer, Nigel Hawthorne, Anna Paquin, Arliss Howard, Jeremy Northam. Franzoni (from the novel Black Mutiny by William Owens).When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25.Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as Plaintext: Decryption is performed similarly, (There are different definitions for the modulo operation. I.e., if x n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.) Read more ...An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash: a AAAAA g AABBA m ABABB s BAAAB y BABBA b AAAAB h AABBB n ABBAA t BAABA z BABBB c AAABA i ABAAA o ABBAB u BAABB d AAABB j BBBAA p ABBBA v BBBAB e AABAA k ABAAB q ABBBB w BABAA f AABAB l ABABA r BAAAA x BABAB In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1.It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. Both also share a strength too often missing from classics books for general readers, one that goes to the heart of the joy of classical scholarship: they never lose sight of the ancient sources on which their stories depend, and convey a strong sense of how sifting through all the flawed surviving evidence -- from Suetonius, Plutarch, Appian, Cassius Dio, Cicero, and Caesar and Augustus themselves -- can thrill the intellect as well as stir the imagination. (though almost certainly not through the medical procedure that bears his name) into patrician privilege and violent times.

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